You are the parasites of the Church, the disease of the Church [laughter]. You are not the believers but the sectarians of a faith you do not understand. Under the Second Empire nothing significant was published about the Society of Jesus. Despite being officially banned, the Society continued to be hounded. The Society of Jesus maintains with our society no social, familial, proprietary or patriotic bonds since the world is its home and the world is its exile.
It is encamped on our land much as might an occupation army […] and it would even sometimes treat us as a dependency, for it has subdivided France into Provinces for its own purpose. To sum up, the Jesuit is neither our contemporary nor our compatriot. He is not our contemporary because he thinks three hundred years backwards!
Or our compatriot because he rejects the very essence of fatherland. Against the background of the Dreyfus Affair, the laws of July on associations and of July against congregations forced 30, members of religious congregations out of the country. In , there appeared the translation of a German synoptic essay authored by Heinrich Boehmer — , with an introduction and notes by Protestant-raised historian Gabriel Monod — Indeed, its missionary work was respected, if not admired, as complementary to the colonial order insofar as more than a quarter of French Jesuits were missionaries in , a percentage that would remain static until In , the same Piolet pointed out that seventy-five percent of the 6, missionaries in the world were French.
The man of God—not necessarily a Jesuit—recognizes grace in the spiritual consolation visited upon him in his travails. During and after the war, cracks soon materialized though the framing of internal criticism represented a novelty. Its publication was delayed as the manuscript was confiscated by the German police occupying Enghien during the war. Ultramontane in Rome, Gallican in Versailles, they authorize in China highly superstitious practices […].
Because of the affection and veneration they inspire, good Jesuits stop most Catholics from seeing what the others are up to. They serve to shroud their dubious maneuvers and thus work equally for the good of the Society […]. The Society wants to rule the rulers of the day, whoever they may be, ready to prostitute itself to their whims if needs be. There we have our brothers of yesteryear, religious who were no Saints, and here the cohort of martyrs, on whose countenance I wish to close for being those whom Saint Ignatius recognizes the most authentic Jesuits.
The centuries-long conflict ended on this ultimate bout. Thereafter, Jesuits would only exceptionally be suspected of enmity towards the French nation or the democratic republican institutions.
Time had come for the Society of Jesus to spread its wings with some of its members devoting themselves to scientific and academic research. The pro-Jesuit editorial effort was extensive but its quality uneven. Brimming with data, the project still evinced an apologetic intent even though by then nothing suggested that an on-going Jesuit presence in France needed any justification. Works on the history of education lay bare the diverging concepts of two Jesuits.
Padberg b. Riding the wave of the Colonial Exposition, Alexandre Brou published a history of Jesuit missionaries in the edifying narrative tradition, 68 and lay author Paul Lesourd — set forth an overview of the history of missions. The military defeat of June , the occupation of the country, and the instauration of the Vichy regime rocked French society to its foundations and, within it, a Society of Jesus in full process of normalization. Along with an almost unanimous ecclesiastical hierarchy, the provincials adopted a stance inspired by the principle of guarantee of unity allied to loyalty towards the government in place.
The majority of Jesuits followed suit in order to better partake in a re-Christianization drive. However, while carrying out their pastoral duties, a minority opted for clandestine activities of spiritual, intellectual, and political resistance, most notably in the Lyon region. A third group was held captive. The resulting awkwardness manifest at the liberation was never articulated and the leadership roles were passed on under the guise of a generational handover. The visitor had the power of control, decisions, and appointment of superiors and rectors in whichever province he was visiting.
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Such an atmosphere was not conducive to recording the internal history of the recent past. More recent events were reported in roundabout ways bypassing ecclesiastical censorship. After Auguste Valensin — had died, his brother Albert edited his spiritual diary, 77 and Henri de Lubac — his correspondence with philosopher Maurice Blondel — ; the book—whose author was at the time prohibited from publishing theology—got reviewed. A public figure 80 with an acknowledged scientific track record, he was marginalized by the Society while his writings circulated in secret.
He had, before his death, entrusted his works to a lay friend to publish.
- Cindys Long Sleep.
- Jacques Derrida.
- La Révolte des accents;
- A Life on the Iron Road?
- Salut au Grand Sud by Érik Orsenna;
The council era offered a generation of Jesuits specialized in the humanities the opportunity to advance a historiographical overhaul. De Certeau stayed put but his insertion in academia in the late 60s early 70s placed him in a unique position. He further disputed their version of a history founded in the full harmony with modernity; he discerned enduring forms of intransigence in its midst.
La Révolte des accents
As tongues and pens loosened within the Society, publications of highly variable quality came out during the s. Research by Alain Guillermou —98 , a professor of Romanian at the Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales, was enhanced by his preferential access to documentation preserved in Jesuit libraries. An era of research, perplexity, and, let us face it, confrontation has started which is not over by a long shot. He further defended the right to think, research and teach freely in the Society.
Notably, he steadfastly refused to make compulsory in philosophy houses the adoption of the twenty-four Thomist theses, even as some Jesuit or other, then very influential in Rome, pushed for this step to be taken. At the end of the 70s and in the early 80s, the Society was in turmoil manifesting behaviors to which Superior General Pedro Arrupe — 99 did not take kindly:.
An anti-institutional attitude seems to be spreading these days in our societies, which affects the Church as well as the Society. They do not feel a shared identity with the others; they speak of the Society as of something that is external to them, nay: foreign.
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They declare themselves sometimes Jesuits sometimes detached from the Body at their own convenience […]. How irresponsible! In this, I see one aspect of secularization, a danger recent pontiffs had warned us against. In France the number of entering novices has significantly dropped since the end of the s while the number departing peaked during the 70s: Jesuits in , close on in down to in The Society has regrouped its four provinces into one, which formed close links with the French-speaking Jesuit province of Southern Belgium and Luxembourg in It has entrusted lay staff with the management of most of its schools and colleges.
Do we still have Jesuit historians?
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His colleague Paul Duclos —93 has drafted a history of the Society in France in the nineteenth and twentieth century though this nomenclature work has remained in manuscript form pages long. Organ of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. English as Editor The Chautauquan, Vol. Brinkley, M. William A. English as Author Forester, Wolston B. John George , Forrest, James T.
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Leichardt and party. With an appendix on the condition of Western Australia. I Italian as Author Il Ricciardetto, vol. Fortia Alphonse Fortia , comte Piles, A. Fortia de Alphonse Fortia , comte Pilles, A. Drury E. Second Volume Extant Books B. Foster, R. See: Bruno, G. English as Author Fowler, Arthur L. Montreuil-Sur-Mer by "G. Gabriel Beato , ? English as Author The Spirit of St. Edward H. Benjamin Franklin, Vol.
Citizendium en. Morris , Dr. Balder the Beautiful, Volume I. Ada , Freese, Jacob R. The Retreat from Mons English as Author of introduction, etc. Bernays See: Bernays, Edward L. French as Author Frey, Hildegard G. English as Author Soll und Haben, Bd. Evaluation of bilingual text and vocabulary alignment systems. The ARCADE project, started in and achieved in , was designed to provide standard methods for the evaluation and comparison of French-English parallel text alignment systems.
The ARCADE II aims at exploring the techniques of multilingual text alignment through a fine evaluation of the existing techniques and the development of new alignment methods. Multilingual reference corpora have been made available for the evaluation exercise. For more information in French , please visit technolangue. Evaluation of Man-Machine dialogue systems. In this case, the task of hotel room reservation including some local touristic information is envisaged.
The aim of the MEDIA evaluation campaign is to test an automatic evaluation methodology for man-machine dialogue systems. The evaluation methodology is based on a paradigm that uses test sets taken from a corpus of real-world dialogues, a semantic representation of dialogue and common evaluation metrics. This protocol is designed to test the capacity of dialogue systems, both taking into account and not taking into account, the context of the dialogue. In order to validate the evaluation protocol and the semantic representations, an evaluation campaign will take place where each partner in the project tests their system.
The task chosen is hotel room reservation, with touristic information as an additional point of entry into the dialogue. Evaluation of Machine Translation Systems. The CESTA campaign proposes a series of evaluation campaigns of machine translation systems for various language pairs towards French.
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